What are the requirements and characteristics of reducers for industrial robots?

The reducer used in industrial robots is a key transmission component in robot systems, whose main task is to reduce the high-speed rotational power of the motor to a speed suitable for robot joint movement and provide sufficient torque. Due to the extremely high requirements for precision, dynamic performance, stability, and service life of industrial robots, reducers used in industrial robots must have the following characteristics and requirements:


1. High precision:

The transmission accuracy of the reducer directly affects the positioning accuracy of the robot's end effector. The reducer is required to have extremely low return clearance (back clearance) and high repeatability positioning accuracy to ensure the accuracy of the robot in performing fine operations.

2. High stiffness:

The reducer needs to have sufficient stiffness to resist external loads and inertial moments generated by robot motion, ensuring the stability of robot motion under high-speed and high load conditions, reducing vibration and error accumulation.

3. High torque density:

Industrial robots often need to achieve high torque output in compact spaces, therefore requiring reducers with a high torque to volume (or weight) ratio, i.e. high torque density, to adapt to the design trend of lightweight and miniaturization of robots.

4. High transmission efficiency:

Efficient reducers can reduce energy loss, reduce heat generation, improve the lifespan of motors, and also contribute to improving the overall energy efficiency of robots. Require high transmission efficiency of the reducer, generally above 90%.

5. Low noise and low vibration:

Reducing the noise and vibration during the operation of the reducer can help improve the comfort of the robot working environment, as well as improve the smoothness and positioning accuracy of the robot's movement.

6. Long lifespan and high reliability:

Industrial robots often need to operate without faults for a long time in harsh environments, therefore requiring reducers with long lifespan, high reliability, and good resistance to wear and impact.

7. Convenient maintenance:

The reducer should be designed in a form that is easy to maintain and replace, such as a modular structure, easily accessible lubrication points, and quickly replaceable seals, to reduce maintenance costs and downtime.


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1. Applicable installation form:

The reducer should be able to adapt to different installation methods of robot joints, such as right angle installation, parallel installation, coaxial installation, etc., and can be easily integrated with motors, robot joint structures, etc.

2. Matching interfaces and sizes:

The output shaft of the reducer should be accurately matched with the input shaft of the robot joint, including diameter, length, keyway, coupling type, etc., to ensure the stability and reliability of power transmission.

3. Environmental adaptability:

According to the working environment of the robot (such as temperature, humidity, dust level, corrosive substances, etc.), the reducer should have corresponding protection level and material selection to ensure long-term stable operation in specific environments.

4. Compatible with control systems:

The reducer should be able to cooperate well with the robot control system (such as servo drive), provide necessary feedback signals (such as encoder output), and support precise speed and position control.

The common types of reducers used in industrial robots, such as RV reducers and harmonic reducers, are designed and manufactured based on the above characteristics and requirements. With their excellent performance, they meet the strict requirements of industrial robots for transmission components.

Post time: Apr-22-2024